First Superheavy Element Found in Nature

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First Superheavy Element Found in Nature

Postby Dracofrost » Tue Apr 29, 2008 10:03 pm

The physics arxiv blog wrote:The hunt for superheavy elements has focused banging various heavy nuclei together and hoping they’ll stick. In this way, physicists have extended the periodic table by manufacturing elements 111, 112, 114, 116 and 118, albeit for vanishingly small instants. Although none of these elements is particularly long lived, they don’t have progressively shorter lives and this is taken as evidence that islands of nuclear stability exist out there and that someday we’ll find stable superheavy elements.

But if these superheavy nuclei are stable, why don’t we find them already on Earth? Turns out we do; they’ve been here all along. The news today is that a group led by Amnon Marinov at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem has found the first naturally occuring superheavy nuclei by sifting through a large pile of the heavy metal thorium.

What they did was fire one thorium nucleus after another through a mass spectrometer to see how heavy each was. Thorium has an atomic number of 90 and occurs mainly in two isotopes with atomic weights of 230 and 232. All these showed up in the measurements along with a various molecular oxides and hydrides that form for technical reasons.

But something else showed up too. An element with a weight of 292 and an atomic number of around 122. That’s an extraordinary claim and quite rightly the team has been diligent in attempting to exclude alternative explanations such as th epresence of exotic molecules formed from impurities in the thorium sample or from the hydrocarbon in oil used in the vacuum pumping equipment). But these have all been ruled out, say Marinov and his buddies.

What they’re left with is the discovery of the first superheavy element, probably number 122.

What do we know about 122? Marinov and co say it has a half life in excess of 100 million years and occurs with an abundance of between 1 and 10 x10^-12, relative to thorium, which is a fairly common element (about as abundant as lead).

Theorists have mapped out the superheavy periodic table and 122 would be a member of the superheavy actinide group. It even has a name: eka-thorium or unbibium. Welcome to our world!

This may well open the flood gates to other similar discoveries. Uranium is the obvious next place to look for superheavy actinides. I’d bet good money that Marinov and his pals are eyeballing the stuff as I write.

Pretty damn cool.
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Re: First Superheavy Element Found in Nature

Postby Megafrost » Wed Apr 30, 2008 3:36 pm

I'm mostly wondering how such elements can change our everyday lives or otherwise push humanity forward.
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Re: First Superheavy Element Found in Nature

Postby TerraFrost » Thu May 01, 2008 2:24 am

Megafrost wrote:I'm mostly wondering how such elements can change our everyday lives or otherwise push humanity forward.

Well, an ultra rare element or otherwise hard to produce one isn't going to change our lives much, heh.

It's like artificial lighting, refrigeration, computers, cell phones, etc. All technologies that have had a tremendous impact on our every day lives. The thing is.. if only one person had a computer or a refrigerator, it wouldn't really affect society all that much. It only really begins to affect society when everyone has them.

Also, I think it's impact would really depend on the properties of the material. And even if it doesn't seem like an overly remarkable material, at first, it might still be really cool decades down the road. For example, even though U-235 is fissile and always has been, we weren't really in a position to appreciate it during the Civil War.

Here's an interesting quote from another element:

Ununoctium is a member of the zero-valence elements that are called noble or inert gases. Consequently, it is expected that ununoctium will have similar physical and chemical properties to other members of its group, most closely resembling the noble gas above it in the periodic table, radon.

I guess that means that certain properties can be predicted, based on it's position in the periodic table.

And, of course, more interesting properties may reveal themselves when the element is combined with element. Carbon leads to nanotubes and to petroleum, which, in turn, leads to plastics, and all sorts of stuff.
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